Sand & gravel production, use survey measures concrete prevalence

Sources: U.S. Geological Survey; CP staff

The annual USGS Mineral Commodity Summaries estimates 2019 construction sand & gravel production at 970 million metric tons, valued at $9 billion and extracted from 6,830 sites operated by 3,870 companies. In order of decreasing tonnage, the lead states for production were Texas, California, Arizona, Minnesota, Michigan, Washington, Ohio, New York, Utah and Colorado—accounting for upward of 55 percent of total U.S. output. 

USGS estimates these construction sand & gravel end uses: concrete aggregates, 46 percent; road base and coverings and road stabilization, 21 percent; construction fill, 13 percent; asphaltic concrete aggregates and other bituminous mixtures, 12 percent; concrete products, filtration, golf course maintenance, plaster, gunite, railroad ballast, road stabilization, roofing granules, and snow or ice control, 4 percent; and, miscellaneous, 4 percent. The agency’s 2019 production figure and estimated apparent consumption of 980 million tons mark 4 percent year-over-year increases. Underlying factors that would support material price increases are expected to be present in 2020, especially in and near metropolitan areas. Movement of production away from densely populated regions is expected to continue as regulations and local sentiment discourage efficient sand & gravel extraction and routing.